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  • 1.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Johari, Fatemeh
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Widén, Joakim
    Impact of Boundary Conditions on the Performance Enhancement of Advanced Control Strategies for a Residential Building with a Heat Pump and PV System with Energy Storage2020Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational control strategies for the heating system of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system and “smart” utilization of energy storage have been developed and evaluated in a simulation study. The main aim and novelty of this study is to evaluate the impact on the benefit of these advanced control strategies in terms of performance (energy use and economic) for a wide range of boundary conditions (country/climate, occupancy and appliance loads). Short-term weather data and historic price data for the same year as well as stochastic occupancy profiles that include the domestic hot water load are used as boundary for a parametric simulation study for the system modeled in detail in TRNSYS 17. Results show that the control using a forecast of dynamic electricity price leads to greater final energy savings than those due to the control using thermal storage for excess PV production in all of the examined locations except Sweden. The impact on self-consumption using thermal storage of heat produced by the heat pump using excess PV production is found to decrease linearly with increasing household electricity for all locations. A reduction in final energy of up to 842 kWh year−1 can be achieved just by the use of these algorithms. The net energy cost for the end-user follows the same trend as for final energy and can result in cost savings up to 175 € year−1 in Germany and Spain due to the use of the advanced control.

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  • 2.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Copertaro, Benedetta
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Simulation and parametric study of a building integrated transpired solar collector heat pump system for a multifamily building cluster in Sweden2020Ingår i: SINTEF Proceedings no 5, BuildSIM-Nordic 2020 Selected papers, International Conference Organised by IBPSA-Nordic, 13th–14th October 2020, OsloMet / [ed] Laurent Georges, Matthias Haase, Vojislav Novakovic and Peter G. Schild, 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar integrated building envelopes represent a significant energy harvesting potential in an era of decentralized building energy systems. This paper aims to simulate an energy system that consists of a transpired air solar collector component for a multifamily building cluster in Sweden. The energy system consists of an unglazed transpired solar collector in conjunction with air ventilation unit and exhaust air heat pump. The hot air from the solar collectors is used to increase the brine temperature at heat pump evaporator inlet to improve its coefficient of performance. The exhaust air heat pump is used to meet space heating and hot water demand for the buildings. The energy system is modelled using TRNSYS simulation program. The associated controls of the energy systems are optimized to increase the seasonal performance factor of the complete system, while maintaining the optimal performance of various subsystems. The quantification of the energetic benefits obtained from the proposed energy system is also presented using various key performance indicators. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of different collector areas and operating variables such as airflow rate of the collector is conducted. The results show that the seasonal performance of the simulated energy system is 1.43 and the annual collector utilization factor is 0.18. Furthermore, the variation of the collector airflow rate has a positive impact on system performance, with an increase of 2 % in the annual heat pump coefficient of performance.

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  • 3. Bee, Elena
    et al.
    Prada, Alessandro
    Baggio, Paolo
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Air-source heat pump and photovoltaic systems for residential heating and cooling: Potential of self-consumption in different European climates2019Ingår i: Building Simulation, ISSN 1996-3599, E-ISSN 1996-8744, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 453-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable sources will play a key role in meeting the EU targets for 2030. The combined use of an aerothermal source through a heat pump and a solar source with a photovoltaic (PV) system is one feasible and promising technology for the heating and cooling of residential spaces. In this study, a detailed model of a single-family house with an air-source heat pump and a PV system is developed with the TRNSYS simulation software. Yearly simulations are run for two types of buildings and nine European climates, for both heating and cooling (where needed), in order to have an overview of the system behaviour, which is deeply influenced by the climate. The storage system (electrical and thermal) is also investigated, by means of multiple simulation scenarios, with and without the battery and with different water storage sizes. The numerical results provide an overview of the performance of the considered heating and cooling system, as well as the balance of the electrical energy exchange between the grid, the building, and the PV array.

  • 4.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Uppsala University.
    Smart control of PV and exhaust air heat pump systems in single-family buildings2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, decentralized household photovoltaic (PV) systems have become more affordable and there is a tendency to decrease subsidies for the PV excess electricity fed into the grid. Therefore, there is growing interest in methods to increase the self-consumption (SC), which is the part of the electricity produced by PV and directly consumed on buildings. It has been found that battery storage is an effective way to achieve this. When there is a heat pump system installed, thermal energy storage using the thermal mass of the building or hot water tanks, can also be used to increase the household self-sufficiency and minimize the final energy use. The main aim of this thesis is to develop operational control strategies for the heating system of a single-family house with an exhaust air heat pump, a photovoltaic system and energy storage. In order to accomplish this a detailed system model was developed in TRNSYS 17, which includes a six-zone building model and the heat pump control. Moreover, these control strategies include short-term weather and price forecast services.  Another objective is to evaluate the impact on the benefit of these control strategies in terms of energy use and economic performance for a wide range of boundary conditions (country/climate, electricity prices, occupancy and appliance loads).  Results show that the control using a forecast of dynamic electricity price in most locations leads to greater final energy savings than those due to the control using thermal storage for excess PV production. The exception is Sweden, where the result is the opposite. Moreover, the addition of battery storage leads to greater decreases in final energy than the use of the thermal storage (TH mode), which is limited to the thermal mass of the building and small hot water tank of the compact heat pump. As far as the impact of the advanced control (combined use of TH and PRICE) on cost savings is concerned, savings (up to 175 €) are possible in Spain and in Germany. The design of the TH and PRICE mode show low computational complexity that can be easily implemented in existing heat pump controllers. Additionally, the PRICE mode should have no capital and running cost for the end user while the TH mode might require an external electricity meter. Another yet implication with the TH mode is the need to activate the room thermostatic valve.

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  • 5.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Bee, Elena
    Widén, Joakim
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Techno-economic analysis of control algorithms for an exhaust air heat pump system for detached houses coupled to a photovoltaic system2019Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 249, s. 355-367Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational control strategies for the heating system and “smart” utilization of energy storage were developed and analyzed in a simulation based case study of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system. Rule based control algorithms that can easily be implemented into modern heat pump controllers were developed with the aim to minimize final energy and maximize self-consumption by the use of the thermal storage of the building, the hot water tank and electrical storage. Short-term weather and electricity price forecasts are used in some of the algorithms. Heat supply from an exhaust air heat pump is limited by the ventilation flow rate fixed by building codes, and compact systems employ an electric heater as backup for both space heating and hot water. This heater plays an important role in the energy balance of the system. A typical system designed for new detached houses in Sweden was chosen for the study. This system, together with an independent photovoltaic system, was used as a base case and all results are compared to those for this base case system. TRNSYS 17 was used to model the building and system as well as the control algorithms, and special care was taken to model the use of the backup electric heater as this impacts significantly on final energy use. Results show that the developed algorithms can reduce final energy by 5–31% and the annual net cost for the end user by 3–26%, with the larger values being for systems with a battery storage. Moreover, the annual use of the backup electric heater can be decreased by 13–30% using the carefully designed algorithms.

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  • 6.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala universitet, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala universitet, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Demand Side Management Using PV, Heat Pumps and Batteries: Effects on Community and Building Level2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the energy management optimization on household level affects the maximum power flow in a community of houses and the contribution to load smoothening in the community. A detailed model of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system is used in combination with high-resolution weather, electricity use and hot water use data. All five houses in the community are identical but the occupancy of the residents and their use of electric appliances and hot water differ. Results show no reduction of the maximum power delivered to the grid if the houses are operated to optimize the individual self-consumption and self-sufficiency. The highest aggregated power from the grid for the whole community occurred when the heat pumps were controlled by the PV electricity production but without any battery storage. This case also resulted in least smoothing of the aggregated household loads in the community. The conclusion of the study is that energy optimization for individual households in a community do not have to result in a reduction of the aggregated load and power production.

  • 7. Sotnikov, A.
    et al.
    Nielsen, C. K.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Dalenbäck, J. -O
    Andersen, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Simulations of a Solar-Assisted Block Heating System2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 8.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Bee, E.
    Luthander, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Smart control strategy for PV and heat pump system utilizing thermal and electrical storage and forecast services2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 9.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala universitet.
    Leppin, Lorenz
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala universitet, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Control algorithms for PV and Heat Pump system using thermal and electrical storage2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th ISES EuroSun 2016 International Conference on Solar Energy for Buildings and Industry, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 11-14 October 2016, International Solar Energy Society , 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a detailed model of a single-family house with an exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system is developed in the simulation software TRNSYS. The model is used to evaluate three control algorithms using thermal and electrical storage in terms of final energy, solar fraction, self-consumption and seasonal performance factor. The algorithms are tested and compared with respect to energetic improvement for 1) use of the heat pump plus storage tank for domestic hot water and space heating, 2) use of the electrical storage in batteries and 3) use of both electrical and thermal storage. Results show the highest increase of self-consumption to 50.5%, solar fraction to 40.6% and final energy decrease to 6923 kWh by implementing the third algorithm in a system with 9.36 kW PV capacity and battery storage of 10.8 kWh. The use of electrical energy storage has higher positive impact compared to the thermal storage with the settings and component sizes used. The combined use of thermal storage and batteries leads to final energy savings that are nearly the same as the combined savings of thermal storage and batteries separately, showing that they are mostly independent of one another for the settings of this study.

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