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  • 1.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Engelska.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Translanguaging in pre-service teachers’ work-study experiences: Practices and perspectives2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Sweden has historically been a multilingual society, Swedish education and teacher education have generally reflected a monolingual mindset. Furthermore, Swedish as the main instructional language in primary, secondary, and tertiary education dominates classrooms, despite pupils and teachers often having knowledge of other languages. With a monolingual orientation to education, multilingual pupils are often learning English through their second language (Swedish) and may not be allowed access to all of their linguistic resources in their schooling. Thus, there is a need to increase awareness and knowledge among pre-service teachers about how to work with multilingual pupils. One way to address this is to incorporate translanguaging as a pedagogy in the English language classroom.

    While translanguaging research has shown many potential benefits, little is known about how translanguaging as addressed in teacher education is enacted in the classroom. The case study presented in this session therefore explores how translanguaging theory and pedagogy informs teaching, addressing the following questions:

    · What translanguaging practices do pre-service English teachers report implementing in the Swedish Years 4-6 classroom? 

    · What discourses are visible in pre-service English teachers’ perspectives on translanguaging in the Swedish Years 4-6 classroom?  

    Data were collected from an online survey and semi-structured interviews with participants recruited from among two cohorts of pre-service teachers enrolled in a Swedish university’s work-study program that trains teachers for Years 4-6 teacher qualification. The cohorts in question have completed an English course in which translanguaging has been addressed in readings, seminar discussions, and tasks.

    In this roundtable session, we aim to facilitate a critical discussion of how translanguaging is understood and implemented in teacher education for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. The presentation will conclude with a number of questions for further reflection, which will also serve as the basis for the discussion to follow.

     

  • 2.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Engelska.
    Tian, Zhongfeng
    University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    English-medium instruction and translanguaging: Global perspectives2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    English-medium instruction (EMI) involves the teaching of academic content through the medium of Englishin contexts where it is not a majority language, thereby creating a space in which students from differentlinguistic and cultural backgrounds meet on common linguistic ground in shared learning experiences.Although EMI is often believed to be an English-only environment, the existence of multiple languages andlanguage practices are common in many such nominally English-only classrooms across the globe. Thus,the ensuing reality in EMI contexts is a plethora of de facto language policies and classroom practices thatare rarely monolingual. Translanguaging, which can be understood as a theory as well as pedagogy, offers aview of all linguistic resources as legitimate for learning. The fact that EMI and translanguaging may existside-by-side is not new. However, empirical research is key to an innovative understanding of theaffordances available for learning, communicating, building identity, dismantling language hierarchies,promoting social justice, and resisting monolingual ideologies when EMI and translanguaging are allowedto be juxtaposed.In this colloquium, we first address some of the definitions, methodologies, and ideologies involved inglobal EMI and translanguaging. Following this introduction, three individual papers focusing on empiricalstudies of EMI and translanguaging in Kazakhstan, Malawi, and Cambodia, respectively, will be presented.These studies reveal how translanguaging has been understood and approached in the various educationalcontexts with different named languages represented. Finally, our invited discussant will first providecomments on the four presentations, before we invite a full-audience discussion of the empirical studies’theoretical and pedagogical contributions to how translanguaging can be understood and applied in EMI contexts, as well as reflections regarding future directions for the research field.

    2 hour colloquium

  • 3.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Engelska.
    Tian, Zhongfeng
    University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Conclusion2021Ingår i: English-Medium Instruction and Translanguaging / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Zhongfeng Tian, Jeanette Toth, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2021, s. 182-183Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Engelska.
    Tian, ZhongfengUniversity of Texas at San Antonio, USA.Toth, JeanetteHögskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    English-Medium Instruction and Translanguaging2021Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book offers a critical exploration of definitions, methodologies and ideologies of English-medium instruction (EMI), contributing to new understandings of translanguaging as theory and pedagogy across diverse contexts. It brings together a number of conceptual and empirical studies on translanguaging in EMI at different educational levels, in a variety of countries, with different approaches to translanguaging, different named languages, and different policies. These studies include several underrepresented contexts across the globe, providing a broad view of how translanguaging in EMI is understood in these educational settings. Furthermore, this book addresses the complexities of translanguaging through a discussion of the affordances and constraints associated with the use of multiple linguistic resources in the EMI classroom.

  • 5.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för språk, litteratur och lärande, Engelska.
    Tian, Zhongfeng
    University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Pedagogiskt arbete.
    Introduction2021Ingår i: English-Medium Instruction and Translanguaging / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Zhongfeng Tian, Jeanette Toth, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2021, s. xix-xxviKapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholms universitet.
    English as a medium of instruction2020Ingår i: The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Education / [ed] Laviosa, S. & González-Davies, M., Abingdon: Routledge, 2020, s. 143-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    English-medium instruction for young learners in Sweden: A longitudinal case study of a primary school class in a bilingual English-Swedish school2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to highlight the policies, perspectives, and practices of language use in a bilingual English-Swedish primary class during Grades 4–6, where English was the medium of instruction in several subjects. A rapidly increasing number of Swedish compulsory schools offer these programs, which are often associated with high status and academic achievement (Skolverket, 2010). Although several studies have investigated content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and English-medium instruction (EMI) at upper secondary schools in Sweden, there is little research on such programs for young learners in the Swedish context. As students may start learning English in Swedish schools as late as Grade 3, young learners who begin attending English-medium programs in Grade 4 may have limited knowledge of English, which can have implications for their content learning. 

    In this thesis, which is situated within an ecology of language framework (van Lier, 2004), questions about language ideologies, teacher and learner beliefs regarding teaching and learning in an additional language, and translanguaging practices have been explored in the three studies included here. Data has been collected over three school years within the larger longitudinal case study, including policy texts, informational brochures, schedules, statistics, instructional materials, student texts, audiorecorded interviews with 13 members of staff and 22 students, audiorecorded lesson observations, fieldnotes, and photos of the school and classroom landscape as well as of instructional materials and student texts. 

    Study I, which focused on stated and practiced language policies concerning languages of instruction in an EMI program in a Swedish compulsory school, revealed a linguistic hierarchy privileging English and a native speaker ideal. While Swedish was also valued as the other language of instruction, minoritized languages such as multilingual students' mother tongues were marginalized. Likewise, in Study II, which explored stakeholder beliefs about the EMI program, it was found that while English was highly valued among the participants and Swedish was considered to be a source of support for students in the English-medium classroom, other languages were mostly invisibilized in the mainstream classroom. However, despite a prevailing belief that students learned English naturally through language immersion by being "forced" to use it to communicate with the native English-speaking teachers, there were also concerns about implications for students' development of subject-specific Swedish. Finally, in Study III, analysis of language choices in English-medium Science and Mathematics lessons revealed how the use of English and Swedish could function as resources for teaching and learning

    Although the findings from this case study may not necessarily apply to other English-medium programs, they nonetheless have implications for policymakers at the national and local levels, as well as for teachers and students involved in such programs. Ideological assumptions about languages and language learning have been shown to shape both policy and practice within educational contexts such as the school in this study. It is therefore imperative that stakeholders are made aware of the challenges involved with teaching and learning in an additional language, so that these programs can be organized in a way that promotes content learning as well as learners' multilingual development.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 8.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Stakeholder beliefs in English-medium instruction for young learners in Sweden2018Ingår i: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 37-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While several studies have investigated English-medium instruction (EMI) or content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in Swedish upper secondary and tertiary education, few have investigated such programmes in Swedish primary schools. This paper explores perceptions among staff and students about affordances and constraints in the learning of content and languages, drawing on data from a larger longitudinal case study of an English-Swedish bilingual primary class during Grades 4-6. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with a school leader, 12 teachers and 22 students as well as fieldnotes and photographs from classroom observations. Thematic analysis of the data revealed the belief among staff that learners acquired English naturally by being ‘forced’ to use it in English-medium subjects taught by native speakers of English. The use of Swedish among students in these subjects was generally seen as a potential scaffold when communicative difficulties arose, as students who were more proficient in English could translate and provide their classmates with explanations of difficult concepts in Swedish. However, staff and students nonetheless voiced concerns about students’ content learning as well as about limited development of subject-specific language in Swedish, which could have implications for their future Swedish-medium studies. Meanwhile, although multilingual students’ mother tongues were valued by the students themselves, participants did not acknowledge them as legitimate learning resources for use in the mainstream classroom, where only English and Swedish were allowed to be used in interaction.

  • 9.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Transspråkande i engelskspråkig ämnesundervisning2018Ingår i: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] Bethanne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB , 2018, s. 243-263Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Toth, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm university.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Agency and affordance in translanguaging for learning: Case studies from English-medium instruction in Swedish schools2017Ingår i: New perspectives on translanguaging and education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer and Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, s. 189-207Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    English first Policy and practice in a Swedish EMI primary class2017Ingår i: Journal of Immersion and Content Based Language Education, ISSN 2212-8433, E-ISSN 2212-8441, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 214-237Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study explores the questions of how national and local education policies address languages of instruction for a Swedish compulsory school offering English-medium instruction (hereafter EMI) as well as how these policies are interpreted and implemented in practice. Critical discourse analysis provides a framework for examining the relationship between stated and enacted policies at the various institutional levels. Methods from linguistic ethnography yielded rich data including classroom observations, interviews, and artifact collection over a period of three school years in grades four through six. Findings from the study reveal discourses of language hierarchies, a native speaker ideal privileging English and practices that reflect varying degrees of language separation. While Swedish is occasionally used to support English-medium content learning, there is little space for students' mother tongues in the mainstream classroom. The findings from this study have implications for how stakeholders may put language-in-education policies into practice in EMI programs.

  • 12.
    Toth, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Translanguaging Practices and Perspectives: Case Studies from English-Medium Instruction in Swedish Schools2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation addresses language alternation in English-medium instruction (EMI) lessons as related to the concept of translanguaging, with a focus on the practices and perspectives of teachers and students in two Swedish schools offering EMI. The research questions were as follows:

    1) What patterns of language alternation can be found in the EMI classroom?

    2) What are the functions of language alternation in the EMI classroom?

    3) How do teachers and students view the use of English and Swedish in these classrooms?

    The studies, based in linguistic ethnography, included classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students in one elementary school classroom and one high school classroom, as well as the collection of artifacts (e.g. lesson plans). In the thematic analysis of the rich data, key concepts emerged, including the notions of affordances and constraints, agency and translanguaging.

    The results indicate that language alternation is viewed as an affordance, allowing access to subject content and subject-specific language. Additionally, language choices reveal teacher and student agency in the EMI lessons. Teachers and students may use Swedish and English based on school policy as well as de facto classroom policies, although perspectives on language choice vary. In the elementary school, peer collaboration in Swedish provides support for comprehension and facilitates communication. Use of Swedish is, however, seen by the teacher as a constraint when it resists classroom policies. In the high school, the practice of translanguaging is not explicitly promoted, but is nonetheless a strategic feature of EMI. 

    While this multiple case study may not be generalizable to all EMI, the results suggest broader implications in terms of how both implicit and explicit language policies are implemented in classrooms. Awareness of the possibilities presented by the process of translanguaging may provide educators with a meaningful tool for the development of bilingual pedagogies.

  • 13.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Reath Warren, Anne
    Stockholm University.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholm University.
    Perspectives on translanguaging in school contexts in Sweden2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a pedagogy, translanguaging affirms bilingual student identity; and as a theoretical concept, translanguaging facilitates the understanding of how bilinguals “construct deeper understandings and make sense of their bilingual worlds” (García, 2009:45). Previous research on translanguaging in the classroom has included studies of bilingual students entering a majority language context (e.g. García 2012, in the US), students studying an official minority language in an immersion context (e.g. Lewis 2008, in Wales), and students in complementary schools developing a minority language (e.g. Blackledge & Creese, 2010, in the UK).

     

    This workshop explores translanguaging in three different multilingual educational settings in Sweden and relates them to previous research on translanguaging in bi/multilingual school contexts (e.g. Lewis 2008, García, 2012, Blackledge & Creese, 2010). The first two settings are in English medium programmes at primary and upper secondary schools, and the third is in subject support in L1 and L2 for recently arrived immigrant students.

     

    The workshop includes four presentations and a discussion slot. Brief summaries follow below.

     

    1. Translanguaging: Affordance or constraint? The first presentation explores the practice of translanguaging in two upper secondary schools offering English-medium instruction. Language alternation in the schools is experienced as either an affordance or a constraint, depending on the views of the stakeholders. Translanguaging is seen as a constraint when the focus is on how much English used, rather than the function of each language. Viewed as an affordance, however, translanguaging resists language hierarchy, allowing for both Swedish and English to maintain a status as a language of learning.
    2. Translanguaging in English-medium instruction: A case study in a Swedish-English primary school 

    The second presentation discusses how the use of both Swedish and English is used to scaffold students' understanding in subjects taught by an English-speaking teacher in Sweden. Classroom language practices and learner perspectives from observations and interviews with students are presented and analysed. Preliminary findings indicate that student-directed translanguaging and peer collaboration in the primary classroom provide a scaffold for emergent bilinguals learning English to access subject content taught through the target language.

    1. Translanguaging in subject support for newly arrived immigrant students

    The third presentation examines how translanguaging is used to scaffold recently arrived students’ understanding of subject matter and the Swedish language, through “Subject Support in L1 and L2” (studiehandledning på modersmål). The ways in which Swedish and the mother tongue are used together in a maths lesson and in a writing unit in Swedish are presented and analysed. It is argued that use of both languages offers opportunities for development both of subject knowledge and multiliteracy.

    1. Translanguaging and language ideologies in Sweden

    The fourth presentation explores the prerequisites for using translanguaging as pedagogy in Swedish school contexts by tracing the nature of the current language ideologies in Sweden. Starting from previous research and theoretical discussions in the paradigm of translanguaging (e.g. Garcia & Homonoff Woodley 2015, Leung & Street 2012, Hyltenstam & Milani 2012, Oakes 2001), the educational settings in the previous presentations of this workshop are scrutinized and discussed with consideration to issues of ideology and language policy.

     

    Through these presentations, we hope to inform, inspire and create a space for discussion on translanguaging as both pedagogy and theory in the Swedish context and beyond, as well as to make visible the language resources that exist in the investigated contexts. Our presentations thus contribute both to the general field of educational research in Sweden as well as to the field of translanguaging as an object of study.

     

    References

    Blackledge, A. & Creese, A. (2010). Multilingualism. A critical perspective. London: Continuum.

    García, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st Century: A global perspective. Malden, MA and Oxford:

            Basil/Blackwell.

    García, O. (2012). Theorizing translanguaging for educators. In C. Celic & K. Seltzer,

          Translanguaging: A CUNY-NYSIEB guide for educators, 1-6.

    Garcia, O. & Homonoff Woodley, H. (2015). Bilingual Education. In B. Bigelow and J. Ennser-Kananen (ed.),      The Routledge Handbook of Educational Linguistics. New York: Routledge

          handbooks. 132–144.

    Hyltenstam, K. & Milani, T.M. (2012). Flerspråkighetens sociopolitiska och sociokulturella ramar. In K. Hyltenstam, M. Axelsson and I. Lindberg (ed.), Flerspråkighet – en forskningsöversikt.

          Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet. 17–134.

    Leung, C. & Street, B. (2012). English. A Changing Medium for Education. New Perspectives on Language and

          Education: 26. Bristol: Multilingual Matters/Channel View Publications.

    Lewis, W. G. (2008). Current challenges in bilingual education in Wales. AILA Review, 21(1), 69-86.

    Oakes, L. (2001). Language and National Identity: Comparing France and Sweden. Amsterdam: John

          Benjamins.

     

     

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