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  • 1.
    Muhammad, Yousif
    et al.
    DTU Denmark.
    Saini, Puneet
    Absolicon Solar Collectors AB.
    Knobloch, Kai
    DTU Denmark.
    Frandsen, Henrik Lund
    DTU Denmark.
    Engelbrecht, Kurt
    DTU Denmark.
    Rock bed thermal energy storage coupled with solar thermal collectors in an industrial application: Simulation, experimental and parametric analysis2023Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 67, artikel-id 107349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heating accounts for approximately 50 % of all final energy consumption worldwide. To decarbonise heating, renewable energy sources must be employed. To account for intermittency of renewable energy sources and provide operational flexibility, low cost and versatile thermal energy storage unit integrated systems are required. Rock-based high temperature thermal energy storage (up to 600 °C) integrated with high temperature solar thermal collectors provide a solution to reduce natural gas consumptions in steam boilers for medium temperature (100 °C–250 °C) industrial processes. This study develops and validates a two-dimensional model of an existing vertical flow 1 MWh high temperature thermal storage unit using experimental data. A parametric study is performed to evaluate the key design parameters and their effect on the temperature profile and charge efficiency. The charge efficiency was found to be in the range of 77–94 %. This pilot scale model is upscaled in the numerical model to an industrial level 330 MWh storage where the output temperature and flowrate are presented for a constant power output, taking into consideration the residual input heat from the solar thermal collectors.

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  • 2.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. Uppsala universitet, Byggteknik och byggd miljö.
    Solar integrated heating systems: Applications in buildings and industries2023Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    “Heat is half” of the global final energy consumption, and the decarbonization of the heating sector is critical to achieving climate goals. This thesis employs a system modelling approach to evaluate renewable heating systems. The overarching goal is to reduce fossil fuel reliance by integrating renewable energy technologies, such as solar thermal, photovoltaics, photovoltaic thermal, heat pump, and thermal energy storage in different system concepts. Two primary sectors are addressed: buildings, with a focus on utilizing solar collectors and heat pumps for heating systems in multifamily houses by recovery of waste heat; and industries, utilizing solar collectors for steam generation below 200 °C. The work is centred around five primary research questions, addressing the technical and economic feasibility of the mentioned technologies and their roles in decarbonization.

    Two system arrangements were simulated to address the heating demands of buildings: a) Centralized heat pump that utilizes ventilation air as a heat source, serving three multifamily buildings, and b) A fifth generation district heating system that utilizes industrial waste heat as its source. The techno-economic performance of these systems was evaluated. The results suggest that the economic viability of such arrangements largely depends on critical factors that include the costs of heat pump sub-stations, prevailing electricity prices, and the cost of waste heat. Incorporating solar air heating collectors and optimizing flow controls enhance both component and system energy efficiency. Moreover, integrating photovoltaic systems, up to a specific capacity, is advantageous as it offers reductions in heating costs.

    For industrial steam generation, the importance of the solar fraction in technological comparisons is highlighted. Parabolic trough collector and heat pump for steam generation are compared for 34 locations in the European Union, using solar fraction as an indicator. The results highlight the economic competitiveness of both technologies for a wide range of boundary conditions. However, heating costs from solar thermal collectors increase at higher solar fractions, primarily due to the storage costs. This trend sets an economic limit on the maximum feasible solar fraction. As a result, hybrid systems combining solar thermal collectors with steam heat pumps offer a promising combination to achieve a high renewable fraction for industrial applications.

    Concerns about CO2 emissions from the electricity grid, and its reliability in many countries, necessitate the exploration of alternative system concepts to meet a higher fraction of heating demand. One such novel energy system combines a parabolic trough collector, photovoltaic, and thermal energy storage (using water and sand as storage media) to reach a combined solar fraction of 90 %, while remaining cost-competitive with fossil fuels. The techno-economic performance of solar thermal collectors is system dependent, largely influenced by their integration within industrial systems. Two novel indicators are introduced to quantify the integration incompatibilities, offering insights into the dynamics for specific integration point. Using this method for a case study resulted in an optimized configuration, improving the overall system performance.

    Collectively, the results are expected to be leveraged by relevant stakeholders to advance the cause of heating decarbonization in buildings and industries.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Huang, Pei
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Volkova, Anna
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Techno-economic analysis of a 5th generation district heating system using thermo-hydraulic model: A multi-objective analysis for a case study in heating dominated climate2023Ingår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 296, artikel-id 113347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A 5th generation district heating (5GDH) system consists of a low-temperature network used as a heat source for de-centralized heat pumps to serve heating demand. Until now, there is a lack of studies looking into the economic aspect of implementing the 5GDH concept. The performance characteristics, system dynamics, and economic feasibility of the 5GDH system are insufficiently investigated in cold climates. This paper aims to bridge the research gap by performing the techno-economic analysis of a 5GDH system using a case study based in Tallinn, Estonia. A detailed thermo-hydraulic simulation model is constructed in TRNSYS and Fluidit Heat. In addition, the uncertainty and sensitivities on the economic performance are analysed using Monte Carlo method implemented in Python. The study further analyses the effectiveness of using solar power technologies in reducing the cost of heating. For designed boundary conditions, the system can deliver heat at levelised cost of heating (LCOH) of 80 €/MWh. Integration of photovoltaic up to a limited capacity results in 1 % reduction when compared to the base case LCOH. The economic benefit of photovoltaic thermal is lower compared to photovoltaic. This study can provide a benchmark for the application of 5GDH systems in heating dominated regions.

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  • 4.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. ppsala University / Absolicon Solar Collectors AB.
    Kivioja, Ville
    Naskali, Liisa
    Byström, Joakim
    Semeraro, Carlo
    Gambardella, Andrea
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Techno-economic assessment of a novel hybrid system of solar thermal and photovoltaic driven sand storage for sustainable industrial steam production2023Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 292, artikel-id 117414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decarbonising industrial heat is a significant challenge due to various factors such as the slow transition to renewable technologies and insufficient awareness of their availability. The effectiveness of commercially available renewable heating systems is not well defined in terms of techno-economic boundaries. This study presents a techno-economic assessment of a novel system designed for steam production at a food and beverage plant. The proposed system is combines parabolic trough collectors with pressurized water thermal storage and photovoltaic-driven high-temperature sand storage. The technological components within the hybrid system complements each other both economically and practically, resulting in cost and land area savings. To evaluate the proposed system, simulations were performed using a model developed in TRNSYS and Python. The combined system exhibits better economic and land use performance than when these technologies are used individually. Specifically, the system has a high solar fraction of 90% while remaining competitive with the existing boiler fuel cost. The study emphasizes the importance of multi-technology approaches in developing practical solutions for industrial heat decarbonization. The findings can guide industries in a transition to sustainable heat sources and contribute to global efforts in mitigating climate change.

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  • 5.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Ghasemi, Mohammad
    Arpagaus, Cordin
    Bless, Frédéric
    Bertsch, Stefan
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Techno-economic comparative analysis of solar thermal collectors and high-temperature heat pumps for industrial steam generation2023Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 277, artikel-id 116623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial heat production is responsible for around 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. To achieve the climate change goals defined in the Paris Climate Agreement, the EU commission has shifted its focus on sustainable means to generate heating. Moreover, global dependencies are leading to a re-organization of natural gas supplies. Therefore, there is a need for less vulnerable and less price-volatile solutions for heating. This paper focuses on two decarbonization technologies for industrial process heat supply: a) electricity-driven steam-generating high-temperature heat pumps (HTHP), a technology that is more efficient than fossil fuel boilers in generating steam, and b) solar parabolic trough collector (PTC), which can produce heat economically and at a minimal carbon footprint compared to other technologies. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the levelized cost of heat (LCOH) of these technologies to fulfill a comparative techno-economic analysis. A maximum PTC collector's solar fraction limit (SFlimit) is defined to indicate when the LCOH for these two technologies is equal. This allows for distinguishing between the economic stronghold of each technology. The evaluation is carried out through the annual energy simulations using TRNSYS and Excel spreadsheets for HTHPs, while TRNSED and OCTAVE are used for the solar thermal part. Boundary conditions for European geographical constraints have been applied to establish use cases for the analysis. The result shows that the design of a PTC system with optimal SF can reach cost parity with HTHP for most of the analyzed locations. The developed methodology serves as a valuable guide to quickly determine a preferred lower carbon heat solution, thus easing the decision-making for industries

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  • 6.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Hedstrom, Andrew
    Arpagaus, Cordin
    Bless, Fredric
    Bertsch, Stefan
    A hybrid system of steam generating heat pump and solar parabolic trough collectors for process heating: Techno-economic analysis for a brewery2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 32% of the World’s final energy. A further breakdown revealsthat 26% of the energy is consumed as electricity and 74% as heat, generated mainly from fossil fuels.Therefore, several technologies focus on providing low carbon heating for industrial processes. For example, a relatively new technology for steam generation is electrically-driven high-temperature heatpumps (HTHP). In

  • 7. Gambardella, Andrea
    et al.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    A novel method for assessing the techno-economicalcompatibility of solar thermal integrations2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a method to evaluate the compatibility of a solar thermal integration in an industrial process. We introduce two indicators to quantify in a comprehensive way all the financial and technicalboundaries influence on the design choices and on the costs of a solar thermal integration.Both the indicators are measures of the divergence of an integration from a fictive (yet technically possible)ideal case and from a “do-nothing” case. In this way, the incompatibilities of the integration are associated tothe consequences that the non-ideal factors have on both costs and performances. Moreover, the value of the indicators is normalized between a minimum and a maximum being the “do-nothing” and the ideal cases respectively.We then used these indicators on a real case scenario to compare the pros and cons of two different solarthermal integration approaches (hot water vs steam) to a beer brewery in southern Europe.The results show that retrofitting part of the existing appliance to be fed with hot water rather than steamenhances the compatibility of solar thermal with the brewery. Nevertheless, we measured no relevant improvement to the compatibility of solar thermal when designing a brewery from scratch with the same characteristics but were the solar thermal system could have been integrated “ad-hoc” rather than retrofitted

  • 8.
    Shah, Juveria
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. Absolicon solar AB, Härnösand; Department of engineering sciences, Uppsala univeristy.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Analysis And Performance Mapping Of “Component To System” For A Parabolic Trough Collector Applied To Process Heating Applications2022Ingår i: ISEC 2022, 2022, s. 487-488Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The slogan “Heat is half” is of importance to keep in mind that nearly 50 % of the final energy use is in the form of heat. The global efforts for future decarbonised heating systems are based on hydrogen and electrification of heating etc. Solar thermal technology is a key component of greener industrial heating solutions. Solar thermal technologies for process heating application has decade long history of implementation and are gaining significant interest from all around the world. The performance prediction of solar thermal technologies on the system level is more complicated compared to photovoltaic, due to the effect of performance on system boundary conditions such as variation in meteorological parameters, load demand, temperature levels, thermal storage type. The central focus of this paper is on the use of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) for process heating applications in the medium temperature range. The aim of this paper is to map the performance of PTC collector into an industrial system, and to analyse the decrease in collector thermal output from component level to system level. The simulations are implemented in TRNSYS and MATLAB. The results are visualized using QGIS tool to generate the heat map for performance parameters for a range of solar fractions.

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  • 9.
    Zarza, E.
    et al.
    CIEMAT-PSA.
    Alarcón, D.
    CIEMAT-PSA.
    Frasquet, M.
    SOLATOM.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. ABSOLICON.
    Integration schemes and BOPs more commonly used in commercial SHIP applications: This is a report from SHC Task 64 / SolarPACES Task IV: Solar Process Heat and work performed in Subtask B: Modularization2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the Subtask B in the new Task 64/IV is the definition of modularized and “normalized” components/subsystems for applications in the field of Solar Heat for industrial Processes (SHIP), e.g. for the balance of plant (BOP), solar field, thermal energy storage and hydraulic circuit. The methodology to achieve this goal is composed of three steps: 

    1. Identification of components/subsystems that are used in commercial SHIP projects more often, taking into consideration the inputs delivered by the partners and information existing in current databases 

    2. Development of modular/standardized designs for these components/subsystems 

    3. Distinction between low and medium temperature SHIP applications 

    Step 1 was based on the analysis of the integration schemes that are more likely to be used in next commercial SHIP projects. It was assumed when preparing the work plan of Subtask B that during this analysis a small number of integration schemes would be identified as good candidates for next commercial projects. However, the integration schemes so far proposed by most of the industrial partners involved in Subtask B were quite different from each other, thus showing that the next commercial projects may use very different integration schemes, in both low and medium temperature range. To check to what extent this is true, the integration schemes so far proposed by the industrial partners are shown in this document (Section 2), together with information about the integration schemes used in the commercial projects included in the data base: www.ship-plants.info (Section 3). 

    For the above reasons, it was decided within Subtask B to adopt a new strategy. This new approach was based on the analysis of BOP options depending on the fluid required in the industrial process and the working fluid used in the solar field. 

    Once the list of these fluids was identified, the industrial partners were asked to perform an integration analysis of those combinations that were part of their business portfolio. Section 4 covers the contributions received to date.

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  • 10.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Ghasemi, Mohammed
    Arpagaus, Cordin
    Bless, Fredric
    Bertch, Stefan
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Techno-economic comparative analysis of solar thermal collectors and high-temperature heat pumps for industrial steam generation2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial heat production is responsible for around 20% of total greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. To achievethe climate change goals defined in the Paris Climate Agreement, the EU commission has shifted its focus onsustainable means to generate heating. Moreover, global dependencies are leading to a re-organization of naturalgas supplies. Therefore, there is a need for less vulnerable and less price volatile solutions for heating. This paperfocuses on two decarbonization technologies for industrial process heat supply: (a) electricity-driven steamgenerating high-temperature heat pumps (HTHP), a technology that is more efficient than fossil fuel boilers ingenerating steam, and (b) solar parabolic trough collector (PTC), which can produce heat economically and at aminimal carbon footprint compared to other technologies. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the levelizedcost of heat (LCOH) of these technologies to fulfill a comparative techno-economic analysis. A maximum PTCcollector's solar fraction limit is defined to indicate when the LCOH for these two technologies is equal. This limitallows distinguishing between the economic stronghold of each technology. The evaluation is carried out throughthe annual energy simulations using TRNSYS and Excel spreadsheets for HTHPs, while TRNSED and OCTAVEare used for the solar thermal part. Boundary conditions for European geographical constraints have been appliedto establish use cases for the analysis. The result shows that the design of a PTC system with optimal SF can reachcost parity with HTHP for most of the analyzed locations. The developed methodology serves as a valuable guideto quickly determine a preferred lower carbon heat solution, thus easing the decision-making for industries.

  • 11.
    Quintana, Samer
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Huang, Pei
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    A preliminary techno-economic study of a building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system for a residential building cluster in Sweden by the integrated toolkit of BIM and PVSISTES2021Ingår i: Intelligent Buildings International, ISSN 1750-8975, E-ISSN 1756-6932, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 51-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 12.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Byggteknik.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Lovati, Marco
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Huang, Pei
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Huang, Zhihua
    Telenor Connexion AB, Stockholm.
    Digital Twin for Accelerating Sustainability in Positive Energy District: A Review of Simulation Tools and Applications2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, E-ISSN 2624-9634, Vol. 3, artikel-id 663269Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A digital twin is regarded as a potential solution to optimize positive energy districts (PED). This paper presents a compact review about digital twins for PED from aspects of concepts, working principles, tools/platforms, and applications, in order to address the issues of both how a digital PED twin is made and what tools can be used for a digital PED twin. Four key components of digital PED twin are identified, i.e., a virtual model, sensor network integration, data analytics, and a stakeholder layer. Very few available tools now have full functions for digital PED twin, while most tools either have a focus on industrial applications or are designed for data collection, communication and visualization based on building information models (BIM) or geographical information system (GIS). Several observations gained from successful application are that current digital PED twins can be categorized into three tiers: (1) an enhanced version of BIM model only, (2) semantic platforms for data flow, and (3) big data analysis and feedback operation. Further challenges and opportunities are found in areas of data analysis and semantic interoperability, business models, data security, and management. The outcome of the review is expected to provide useful information for further development of digital PED twins and optimizing its sustainability.

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  • 13.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Larsson, David
    Heat Recovery Potential From PV Modules: A Simulation Case Study for a Swedish Residential Building Cluster2021Ingår i: Energy Proceedings: Volume 14: Proceedings Applied Energy Symposium: CUE2021, Japan/Virtual, 2021, 2021, artikel-id 16Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic thermal collectors (PVT) can generate electricity and heat from one module. In a typical aerothermal PVT system, the air flow behind the PV modules is created using air channels, and the heated air is ducted to the point of usage. The central aim of this paper is to simulate a system where the recovered heat from a PV installation is utilized in the energy system of a multifamily building cluster in Sweden. The paper tends to establish if the additional cost of “heat recovery system” components justify the savings obtained due to recovered heat from PV. To achieve this, a simulation model is built in TRNSYS for a multi-family building cluster in Sweden. Specifically, two energy system configurations are simulated.1) Recovered heat from PV collectors is used for pre-heating of domestic hot water.2) Heat from PV collectors is used at the evaporator of an air source heat pump to increase its performance. The heat pump is further used to generate domestic hot water.Results show that the advantage of PVT integration is more pronounced when recovered heat is used directly for pre-heating of DHW. The savings are lower when PVT is coupled with heat pump.

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  • 14.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Byggteknik.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Machine learning and artificial intelligence for digital twin to accelerate sustainability in positive energy districts2021Ingår i: Data-driven Analytics for Sustainable Buildings and Cities: From Theory to Application / [ed] Xingxing Zhang, Singarpore: Springer, 2021Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Retrofitting of solar air heating collectors in the energy system for a Swedish multi-family residential building cluster2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the work conducted within the framework of two research projects a) Energy Matching b) Efficient solar rooftops. The scope of both the projects differs, however, there is a common technological aspect about evaluating solar air heating collectors for an energy efficient built environment. This is the central aspect of the report, where the techno-economic feasibility of two types of solar air heating collectors is evaluated. The first collector type considered is unglazed transpired solar collector, which is classically used for air heating in residential buildings across North America. The second collector type is a photovoltaic thermal air collector. The concept is to use existing PV settings by installing a heat recovery system to obtain an airflow behind the PV modules, and then use this heat for various purposes.

    The project's scope restricts most of the boundary conditions regarding load, climate, and system configurations evaluated in this report. In total, four system configurations are identified which seem most suitable for the aforementioned solar collector technologies. The focus is on retrofitting these collectors in the existing energy system for a multi-family building cluster in Sweden. The system configurations evaluated includes:

    a) Transpired collectors with exhaust air heat pump.

    b) Transpired collectors with air source heat pump.

    b) Photovoltaic thermal collectors for domestic hot water pre-heating.

    d) Photovoltaic thermal collectors with air source heat pump for domestic hot water pre-heating.

     

    The scope of analysis is limited to the energy, and economic performance of the whole system to evaluate the effect of the retrofit intervention of solar air heating collectors. The system is modelled using TRNSYS for three configurations and using Microsoft Excel for one specific configuration. The secondary objective is to evaluate the possibilities to improve solar collector performance on the system level, with a specific focus on the airflow control strategies for the collectors.  

    The results have shown that the integration of transpired collectors has a small but positive impact on the overall system performance for an exhaust air heat pump system. The control flow strategy developed effectively improves the system performance and thus annual savings. Despite this, the savings are not high enough to reach positive net present values during the collector's lifetime. The benefits are higher when the transpired collector is integrated with an ASHP, and the net present value is positive for this configuration. This configuration is implemented in one of the demo sites within the project. 

    The recovered heat from the PV collector can be more effectively used for direct domestic hot water pre-heating, rather than in series integration with heat pump. Comparing the savings from water pre-heating with the additional cost of installing heat recovery features in PV, the system will likely have a positive net present value. On the other hand, the effect with heat pump is quite small and thus results in lower savings. 

    This study can be used as a stepping stone towards identifying additional research opportunities for such systems.

  • 16.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Santiago, Juan
    Semararo, Carlo
    Techno-Economic Analysis For Solar Thermal Integration Point In An Industrial Boiler Network: Case Study From Dairy Sector2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents techno-economic analysis of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) for various integration points in a boiler network. The complete system is simulated with solar collectors utilized in 3 different integration schemes: a) feed water heating, b) direct steam generation, and c) process integration. The effect of integration point on the solar fraction, levelized cost of heating (LCoH), and carbon mitigation potential is presented for a real case dairy unit in Dubai. The simulations are performed using TRNSYS and MATLAB. Results show that the least global LCoH for highest solar fraction is achieved for process level integration. A relatively higher carbon mitigation can be achieved in steam integration, at expense of higher LCoH. The excess energy from the solarfield can be stored in thermal storage tanks and can be utilized when there is intermittency in solar radiation

  • 17.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Paolo, Bonato
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Widén, Joakim
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Energiteknik.
    Techno-economic analysis of an exhaust air heat pump system assisted by unglazed transpired solar collectors in a Swedish residential cluster2021Ingår i: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 224, s. 966-983Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar heating technologies hold a significant potential to supplement or replace the fossil fuel-driven heating systems in residential and industrial applications. This paper presents a techno-economic study aiming to assess the use of Unglazed Transpired Solar Collectors (UTSC) coupled with an energy system assisted by Exhaust Air Heat Pump (EAHP) in cold climates applied to a residential building cluster. The performance of the system and its components is assessed for different sizes of solar collector field. In addition, a rule-based algorithm is developed to manage the airflow into the UTSC, and a comparative analysis is carried out with conventional flow control. The existing EAHP assisted energy system of a multifamily building cluster in Sweden is modelled by using a simulation software TRNSYS, and the effects of the UTSCs integration on the performances of the energy system are evaluated. Results show that the integration of UTSCs has a small but positive impact on the overall system performance. Moreover, the developed control based on the variation of the collector airflow rate for UTSC is an effective control strategy to increase the seasonal performance factor of the overall system and to maximize the savings.

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  • 18.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Quadsun solar solutions, Gurugram India.
    Bhalekar, Prakash
    Kumaran, Jubin
    A Novel Effluent Evaporation System for Industrial Applications2020Ingår i: EuroSun 2020 Proceedings, 2020, s. 266-277Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design, working principle, and field performance data of a novel effluent/brineevaporation system developed and commercialised by Quadsun solar solutions, India. The developedevaporator aims to address the challenges with existing evaporation technologies to reduce the land arearequirement and heat consumption for brine evaporation while minimising the system operational cost. Thedeveloped evaporator system works on a data-driven control strategy where the effect of constraints on theevaporation rate is non-linear, and the objective function is set to minimise the electricity consumption of thesystem. The optimisation of the evaporation rate in the system control volume is achieved by variation of a)mass flow rate of brine, b) wind speed over the evaporation surface and c) contact area between brine and air.The system performance results are presented for an installed site located in Northern India for a testing periodof 64 days. The results are further compared with a solar pond evaporation system using an analytical model.The result shows that the proposed evaporator has an average specific evaporation rate (SER) of 0.48 L/(h⋅m2),which is 3.8 times higher compared to SER for the solar pond for the same meteorological conditions.Furthermore, the compactness of the proposed evaporator design results in significant land savings comparedto the pond evaporation system.

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  • 19.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Pellegrino, Filippo
    Shen, Jingchun
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Byggteknik.
    Copertaro, Benedetta
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Huang, Pei
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Lovati, Marco
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    A preliminary simulation study about the impact of COVID-19 crisis on energy demand of a building mix at a district in Sweden2020Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 280, artikel-id 115954Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 20.
    Huang, Pei
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Copertaro, Benedetta
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Yan, Da
    Wu, Yi
    Chen, Xiangjie
    A Technical Review of Modeling Techniques for Urban Solar Mobility: Solar to Buildings, Vehicles,and Storage (S2BVS)2020Ingår i: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, E-ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 12, artikel-id 7035Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 21. Belleri, Annamaria
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Sanchez de soria, Tomas
    Solarwall.
    Paolo, Bonato
    EURAC.
    Adami, Jennifer
    D4.2 Solar assisted ventilation2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22. Reddy Penaka, Santhan
    et al.
    Saini, Puneet
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    del Amo, Alejandro
    Abora Solar Company, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Digital Mapping of Techno-Economic Performance of a Water-Based Solar Photovoltaic/Thermal (PVT) System for Buildings over Large Geographical Cities2020Ingår i: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 10, nr 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) is an emerging technology capable of producing electrical and thermal energy using a single collector. However, to achieve larger market penetration of this technology, it is imperative to have an understanding of the energetic performance for different climatic conditions and the economic performance under various financial scenarios. This paper thus presents a techno-economic evaluation of a typical water-based PVT system for a single-family house to generate electricity and domestic hot water applications in 85 locations worldwide. The simulations are performed using a validated tool with one-hour time step for output. The thermal performance of the collector is evaluated using energy utilization ratio and exergy efficiency as key performance indicators, which are further visualized by the digital mapping approach. The economic performance is assessed using net present value and payback period under two financial scenarios: (1) total system cost as a capital investment in the first year; (2) only 25% of total system cost is a capital investment and the remaining 75% investment is considered for a financing period with a certain interest rate. The results show that such a PVT system has better energy and exergy performance for the locations with a low annual ambient temperature and vice versa. Furthermore, it is seen that the system boundaries, such as load profile, hot water storage volume, etc., can have a significant effect on the annual energy production of the system. Economic analysis indicates that the average net present values per unit collector area are 1800 and 2200 EUR, respectively, among the 85 cities for financial model 1 and financial model 2. Nevertheless, from the payback period point of view, financial model 1 is recommended for locations with high interest rate. The study is helpful to set an understanding of general factors influencing the techno-economic performance dynamics of PVT systems for various locations.

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  • 23. Reddy, Santhan
    et al.
    Saini, Puneet
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Del Amo, Alejandro
    Digital mapping of techno-economic performance of a water-based solarphotovoltaic/thermal (PVT) system for buildings over large geographical cities2020Ingår i: EuroSun 2020 Proceedings, 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) is an emerging technology, capable of producing electrical and thermal energyusing a single collector. However, to achieve larger market penetration for this technology, it is imperative to havean understanding of the energetic performance for different climatic conditions and the economic performanceunder various financial scenarios. This paper thus presents a techno-economic evaluation of a typical water basedPVT system for electricity and domestic hot water applications in 85 locations worldwide. The simulations areperformed using a validated tool with one-hour time step for output. The thermal performance of the collector isevaluated using energy utilization ratio as efficiency as key performance indicators, which are further visualizedby the digital mapping approach. The economic performance is assessed using net present value and paybackperiod under two financial scenarios: (1) total system cost as a capital investment in the first year; (2) only 25 %of total system cost is a capital investment and remaining 75 % investment is considered with financing periodwith certain interest rate. The results show that such a PVT system has better energy performance for the locationswith a low annual ambient temperature and vice versa. Furthermore, it is seen that the system boundaries, such asload profile, hot water storage volume, etc., can have a significant effect on the annual energy production of thesystem. Economic analysis indicates that the average net present values per unit collector area are 1800 € and2200 € respectively among the 85 cities for financial model 1 and financial model 2. Nevertheless, from thepayback period point of view, financial model 1 is recommended for the locations with high interest rate. Thestudy is helpful to set an understanding of general factors influencing the techno-economic performance of PVTsystems. 

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  • 24.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. Uppsala University.
    Copertaro, Benedetta
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Widén, Joakim
    Uppsala University.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Simulation and parametric study of a building integrated transpired solar collector heat pump system for a multifamily building cluster in Sweden2020Ingår i: SINTEF Proceedings no 5, BuildSIM-Nordic 2020 Selected papers, International Conference Organised by IBPSA-Nordic, 13th–14th October 2020, OsloMet / [ed] Laurent Georges, Matthias Haase, Vojislav Novakovic and Peter G. Schild, 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar integrated building envelopes represent a significant energy harvesting potential in an era of decentralized building energy systems. This paper aims to simulate an energy system that consists of a transpired air solar collector component for a multifamily building cluster in Sweden. The energy system consists of an unglazed transpired solar collector in conjunction with air ventilation unit and exhaust air heat pump. The hot air from the solar collectors is used to increase the brine temperature at heat pump evaporator inlet to improve its coefficient of performance. The exhaust air heat pump is used to meet space heating and hot water demand for the buildings. The energy system is modelled using TRNSYS simulation program. The associated controls of the energy systems are optimized to increase the seasonal performance factor of the complete system, while maintaining the optimal performance of various subsystems. The quantification of the energetic benefits obtained from the proposed energy system is also presented using various key performance indicators. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of different collector areas and operating variables such as airflow rate of the collector is conducted. The results show that the seasonal performance of the simulated energy system is 1.43 and the annual collector utilization factor is 0.18. Furthermore, the variation of the collector airflow rate has a positive impact on system performance, with an increase of 2 % in the annual heat pump coefficient of performance.

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  • 25.
    Saini, Puneet
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Copertaro, Benedetta
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    A preliminary optimisation and techno-economic analysis of solar assisted building heating system using transpired air solar collector and heat pump in Sweden2019Ingår i: International Conference on Applied Energy 2019, 2019, artikel-id 672Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transpired solar air collector can be used in combination with heat Pump to meet space heating and hot water demand in domestic dwellings. Moreover, the solar pre-heated fresh air can be used as a heat source for the heat pump evaporator, improving its coefficient of performance. Many research articles have been published on this subject, however the optimal analyses about techno-economic feasibility of a heat pump with the transpired solar collector are still lacking. Therefore, an optimisation tool is developed, based on non-linear programming using coherent operation strategy and variation in collector flow rate for a solar heat pump system. The effect of optimisation along with techno-economic feasibility for a demo case in Sweden is then preliminary studied based on the defined boundary conditions. The results are used to select the most cost-effective collector area installation, along with an efficient operation strategy for a given system configuration. Results indicate that the hourly flow rate optimisation can determine 35 % increased savings, compared to a non-optimised fixed flow rate case. Moreover, the simulated system has a net present value of € 5000 when calculated at 2 % discount rate for 30 years. The tool has potential use for pre-feasibility check at an earlier stage of the dedicated design and operation, without the need for extensive system simulations.

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