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  • 51.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Language Economy and Learner Autonomy in Computer-mediated Communication2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I discuss two types of language economy in Internet textchat discourse, ellipsis and reduced forms (such as clippings and informal phoneticised spellings). These are markers that a community of practice is being or has been formed. The data I analyse is textchat data from seminars with students on an MA in English Linguistics. Reduced forms are expected in Internet discourse and function as an in-group marker that the user is an experienced Internet user. I present additional evidence that learners are agents of the process of standardising the forms the community uses. Ellipsis is shown to function as a marker of interaction, and therefore that the community is a cohesive group. I show that the major functions of interaction that have been presented in the literature can be seen in ellipsis contexts. We can therefore conclude that both these types of reduced language are also evidence of a social autonomy that the learners have which is seen as a prerequisite for learner autonomy.

  • 52.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Language Economy as a Marker of a Community of Practice2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 53.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Language Economy as Evidence of Learner Autonomy2013Ingår i: Academic Exchange Quarterly, ISSN 1096-1453, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 79-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue here that using an economised language in computer-mediated communication is evidence that learners are autonomous. Data is analysed from text chatlogs in English, and we see evidence of such language in reduced forms like clippings. The use of these forms is evidence that a community of practice has formed. Crucially, also, the participants are leaders in the setting of reduced forms as discourse norms. Thus, we conclude that the learners are autonomous agents in their language learning.

  • 54.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Language Economy in Computer-mediated Communication: Learner Autonomy in a Community of Practice2013Ingår i: Computer-assisted foreign language teaching and learning: Technological advances / [ed] Bin Zou, Minjie Xing, Catherine Xiang, Yuping Wang, Mingyu Sun, Hershey, Pa.: IGI Global, 2013, s. 73-89Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents an analysis of economised language in textchat data from non-native English-speaking students on an MA programme in English Linguistics. Previous research by the author demonstrated that forms clipped or otherwise reduced from their full version can be considered evidence that an Internet community of practice has formed. We argue here that this implies that the learners are exhibiting autonomy, and we also demonstrate that the same can be concluded for ellipsis. The functions of ellipsis are identified, which demonstrates that students are interacting, and therefore are at least in the process of forming a social learning community.

  • 55.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Ellipsis and Interaction in an Academic Community of Practice2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 56.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Language Economy in CMC: Presentation of an Ongoing Research Project2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 57.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Reduced Forms in Academic Computer-mediated Communication2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I present a study of the use of reduced forms by students studying on a web-based MA programme. By reduced form, I mean that word-forms have been reduced in some way, for example in clipped forms like plane instead of airplane; but also the formality level can be reduced, for example with more phonetic spellings like woz instead of was. White (2011, forthcoming ) demonstrates that these learners who are novice Internet users in English reduced word forms because of their saliency in discourse and frequency of use. In this new study, I look at the development of reduced forms over an introductory course in English linguistics, seeing if particular forms have become standardised, see Žegarac (1998) for discussion of this term. What the standardisation process does is argued by White (forthcoming) to mark that a discourse community has formed. Thus, by using reduced forms, students are marking that they belong to a community of practice (Lave and Wenger 1991, Wenger 1998). We look at two types of examples. One are topic-specific items where there is a process of agreement among participants on a particular reduced form within a particular type of discourse. These are in fact a very local process of the kind argued to be central to the formation of communities of practice (Wenger 1998), and indeed can be local to particular topics, as the same reduced form can be related to different full forms (D referring to derivation in a discussion of morphology, or to the name of an individual Damian in a discussion of language and gender). Then there are more general items that are used in a wider range of topics and discourses. All these items can be subject to standardisation, we argue, although some items require a longer time to be standardised than is available during the short course analysed here. Very common discourse markers like please and thanks have been subject to standardisation, while less common ones like question have not, with competing forms still available.

  • 58.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Reduced forms in chat language2011Ingår i: ASLA, Högskolan Dalarna, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 59.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Standardisation of reduced forms2011Ingår i: Higher Seminar in Languages and Culture, Falun, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 60.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Tense and Aspect in Vietnamese English2011Ingår i: Higher Seminar in Languages and Culture, Högskolan Dalarna, 2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 61.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    The Pragmatics of Reduced Forms2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 62.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    The Status of Vietnamese English2009Ingår i: Higher Seminar in Language and Culture, Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 63.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Autonomy and Socialisation in Distance Education2008Ingår i: Higher Seminar in Language, Literature and Linguistics, Högskolan Dalarna, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 64.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Cross-linguistic Variation in Result Clauses2008Ingår i: ESSE 9, Seminar S23, Modern English Syntax: Historical and Comparative Approaches, Århus, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 65.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Review of Plag, I., M. Braun, S. Lappe and M. Schramm (2007) Introduction to English Linguistics. Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin/New York.2008Ingår i: The Linguist List, Vol. 19, nr 213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 66.
    Beers Fägersten, Kristy
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Discourse strategies and power roles in student-led distance learning2007Ingår i: Identity and Power in the Language Classroom, Umeå, 2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The assertion of identity and power via computer-mediated communication in the context of distance or web-based learning presents challenges to both teachers and students. When regular, face-to-face classroom interaction is replaced by online chat or group discussion forums, participants must avail themselves of new techniques and tactics for contributing to and progressing interaction, discussion, and learning. During student-only chat sessions, the absence of teacher-led, face-to-face classroom activities requires the students to assume leadership roles and responsibilities normally associated with the teacher. This situation raises the questions of who teaches and who learns; how students discursively negotiate power roles; and whether power emerges as a function of displayed expertise and knowledge or rather the use of authoritative language. In this descriptive study, we examine a corpus of task-based discussion logs among students of distance learning courses in English linguistics. The data reveal recurring discourse strategies used by students for the purpose of 1) negotiating the progression of the discussion sessions, 2) asserting and questioning knowledge, and 3) assuming or relinquishing power and responsibility. The data contribute to a better understanding of how working methods and materials can be tailored to distance learning students, and how such students can be afforded opportunities or even more effectively encouraged to assert their knowledge and authority.

  • 67.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Is morphology really syntax?2005Ingår i: Higher Seminar in Linguistics, Högskolan Dalarna, Falun, Sweden, 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 68.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Result clauses and their positioning2005Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th Seoul International Conference on Generative Grammar, Seoul, 2005, s. 315-328Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 69.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Review of Aronoff, M. and K. Fudeman. (2005). What is Morphology? Oxford: Blackwell Publishing2005Ingår i: The Linguist ListArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 70.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    The place of result clauses2005Ingår i: 21st Scandinavian Conference in Linguistics, Trondheim, 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 71.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Where are Result Clauses in English?2005Ingår i: Studies in Generative Grammar, ISSN 0167-4331, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 511-532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I discuss where result clauses are positioned in English sentences. A number of factors affect their position. Firstly there are semantic properties such as scope. If these are the only factors, then we have a compositional structure. This turns out not to be the case, since there is c-command test evidence that the finiteness of the result clause is relevant. Infinitival result clauses are attached lower down than finite ones are. However, the degree word and result clause in narrow-scope readings are part of a constituent, with the former selecting the latter. I therefore propose that covert movement is required to explain the c-command data. With wide-scope readings, on the other hand, the degree word and result clause do not form a constituent. A problem arises with how selection holds, and I propose that covert movement is required.

  • 72.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Review 15.3455 of Radford, Andrew (2004) English Syntax: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press2004Ingår i: Communications: the European Journal of Communication Research, ISSN 0341-2059, E-ISSN 1613-4087Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 73.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Syntactic autonomy and result clauses2004Ingår i: Working Papers in Linguistics / [ed] Heinat, Fredrik; Manninen, Satu, The Department of English in Lund , 2004, Vol. 4, s. 93-120Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 74.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Syntactic autonomy and result clauses2004Ingår i: The Department of English in Lund: Working Papers in Linguistics, ISSN 1650-691X, Vol. 4, s. 93-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I look at whether the syntactic properties of the result clause construction in English can be predicted from its semantic properties. I adopt the semantics of Meier (2000, 2003) which treats the construction as having a hidden conditional meaning. The structure she proposes makes predictions for the syntactic properties of result clauses that are not fulfilled, in that different degree words are associated with different structures. I propose structures that are not strictly compositional.

  • 75.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    The positioning of result clauses2004Ingår i: Ninth Nordic Conference for English Studies, Aarhus, Denmark, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 76.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Clustering in Verb Phrases2003Ingår i: Proceedings from the 8th Nordic Conference on English Studies, 2003, s. 137-150Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 77.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Review number 14.1360 of Alexiadou, A., E. Anagnostopoulou, S. Barbiers and H.-M. Gärtner (2002) Dimensions of movement: From features to remnants. John Benjamins. Amsterdam2003Ingår i: The Linguist ListArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 78.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Review number 14.3181 of Adger, D. (2003) Core Syntax: A Minimalist Approach. Oxford University Press. Oxford2003Ingår i: The Linguist ListArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 79.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Review number 14.525 of Chomsky, Noam (2002) On Nature and Language2003Ingår i: The Linguist ListArtikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 80.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Adjuncts and VP structure2000Ingår i: UCL Working Papers in Linguistics, ISSN 0956-7194, Vol. 2, s. 202-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 81.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    An inquiry into Minimalist phrase structure1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis takes as its starting point the proposal in Kayne (1994) that all syntactic structures are underlyingly spec-head-complement, and that they are right-branching. I will investigate this proposal taking data from English degree constructions, namely result clauses and comparatives. A comparison will be made between these constructions and English VPs, on which the majority of the phrase structure debate in the literature has been based. The evidence for left-branching and for right-branching in VPs will be considered, and similar evidence sought for degree constructions. We will see that VPs have a mostly right-branching structure, although left-branching structures are required in restricted circumstances. Also reason and manner adjuncts are argued to be right-adjoined to the VP node, a conclusion that is re-inforced by considering the constituency of VP adjuncts and some PP sequences noted by Jackendoff (1973). In degree constructions too, we argue that both left-branching and right-branching structures are necessary. My conclusion will be that Kayne’s proposal is too strong, even though it is ideal from the perspective of a minimalist approach to syntax.

  • 82.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Engelska.
    Syntax-LF mapping and the internal structure of comparativ1998Ingår i: UCL Working Papers in Linguistics, ISSN 0956-7194, Vol. 10, s. 489-508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The change to a Minimalist approach to syntax makes us consider whether previously assumed processes are necessary, including May's Quantifier Raising rule. Following Fox (1995), I argue from the domain of English comparatives, whose degree heads are assumed to be quantifiers, that QR only takes place when base-generated scope relations are changed. Comparatives are analysed as discontinuous heads, whose outer head position encodes the base-generated scopal order. After presenting some arguments about the complement of the second head, I present evidence that further raising of the degree head is needed.

  • 83.
    White, Jonathan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Engelska.
    Result clauses and the structure of Degree Phrases1997Ingår i: UCL Working Papers in Linguistics, ISSN 0956-7194, Vol. 9, s. 315-333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I am concerned here with the structure of Degree Phrases which introduce Result clauses. After demonstrating that degree words select these clauses, I look at some previous proposals regarding this structure. I consider Abney's (1987) account, a extraposition-based version using Jackendoff's (1977) work, and finally Baltin (1987), which involves both selection and extraposition. Next, I introduce my proposal, that functional categories can project shells, and analyse Degree Phrases in this way. Lastly, I propose a possible semantic analysis, which is intended to demonstrate that my syntactic account is superior to the others.

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